Reply to two classmates. Replies to classmates should be 200 words in length eac

Reply to two classmates. Replies to classmates should be 200 words in length each. classmate#1In this world there are multiple factors that influence the health of an individual. According to the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Organization (ODPHO) (2021) these factors can be broken down into certain determinants. These determinants can be physical, social, biological, and genetic. Some of these determinants are things that are not under our control. This like inherited genes for sickle cell anemia and certain cancers are genetic influences on health. Social determinants deal with social and physical factors in the living environment. Things like the availability of resources, the opportunity for a quality education, and a good job may all influence health factors. Other social determinants such as exposure to crime, violence, and social disorder may affect mental health. Even the type of technology, media, and social media that a person is exposed to may guide the health cycle of an individual. The ODPHO has determined that poor social determinants typically lead to poor health status. To give a real-world current example one may be able to look at how the Covid 19 vaccine has been politicized. If one were to believe some social media outlets, one may decide to stay away from the vaccine. Multiple entities have reported the number of unvaccinated people that are suffering from severe illness or death at the hand of the novel coronavirus. While vaccinated people are still being infected, the majority of these patients, suffer from mild to moderate symptoms only. When I was young, I watched many of my family members smoke cigarettes. It was socially normal and acceptable for people to smoke everywhere. I remember my father and mother being asked if they wanted to sit in the smoking or non-smoking section of a restaurant. After years of research, it has become common knowledge that smoking leads to multiple pulmonary diseases such as emphysema and cancer. Social determinants like smoking influence health down the road. The same people I watched smoke cigarettes have all passed from the complications of some lung disease. Other social determinants such as a familial cooking style may lead to obesity. Obesity is linked to heart disease, diabetes, and strokes. Clark (2015) describes the chain of infection as a series of events that lead to a communicable disease. This chain includes the causative agent or microorganism, the reservoir or source, a portal of exit which allows the microorganism to escape from the host, a mode of transmission, a portal of entry to a new host, and a susceptible host. The community health nurse can intervene in multiple ways to break the chain of infection. Interventions are based on which link in the chain is to be broken. If the nurse wanted to stop the organism itself, the nurse may educate on and participate in sanitization and sterilization procedures. In the case of HIV, the nurse, can help to block a portal of exit and entry by educating people on safe sex practices. Condoms can and are provided for free at most community health clinics. The nurse may also help identify the mode of transmission and educate populations to decrease this transmission. We have all educated patients, friends, and family members on the use of face masks during this pandemic to decrease droplet/airborne transmission of this disease. Identifying susceptible hosts can also be done by the community health nurse. By understanding the population that the nurse serves, the nurse can identify who may become infected by a certain pathogen. The nurse may want to educate patients that are susceptible to become vaccinated for diseases like measles or influenza in certain countries, while another nurse may tell her population that they need to be vaccinated for polio and yellow fever in other parts of the world. classmate#2Social Determinant of HealthSocial determinants of health (SDOH) are classified as conditions that impact communities where people are born, live, learn, work, play, worship, and that affect a wide range of health and quality of life outcomes (Healthy People 2030). Environmental factors are one of main concerns when is comes to public health. SDOH also impact education, income, access to nutritious foods and physical activity opportunities. Growing up in what many may say the “rough side” of Indianapolis, we did not have access to beautiful playgrounds or neighborhood YMCA’s. At the time, I did not know that it was a great concern. Mom and dad made a great effort taking the kids to the nicer side of Indianapolis where we took advantage of the YMCA’s. Of course, I knew nothing about SDOH, but now I know the issue is mainly in the lower-income neighborhoods. Why is this such a problem? Have you ever noticed fast-food restaurants and liquor stores are heavily populated in lower-income areas? The United States spends significantly more on healthcare than other developed countries yet has the worse health outcomes (Hayes et al., 2018). Yes, the U.S. healthcare system does a great job focusing on medical interventions but sadly ignore other factors that is negatively impacting health outcomes. Lower income areas have less funding poured into the communities. Limited funding equals limited access to health-promoting goods and services and higher rates of crime and violence. This is truly a recipe for human destruction. Exposure to air, water, and land pollution in the environment can also have a negative effect on your health. And once again, this is a serious concern in lower income neighborhoods. One example was the Flint water crisis. Thousands of innocent lives were exposed to lead-contaminated water for 20 months (Hayes et al., 2018). Among those affected by this crisis, 42% was in poverty and 54% was African American. During this crises, 12 lives were lost, children with lead toxicity doubled, and fertility rates decreased.The Chain of Infection- A Introduction to EpidemiologyAccording to the Centers for disease Control and Prevention, the chain of infection can be best described as the transmission of an infection- which occurs when the agent leaves its reservoir or host through a portal of exit through a process called mode of transmission. Then enters through a portal of entry to infect a susceptible host. There are two ways an agent can be transmitted:Direct (direct contact or droplet spread)
Indirect (airborne, vehicle borne, vector borne)
Breaking The Chain of InfectionIt will take more than just educating the community on proper handwashing techniques to break the chain of infection. Community health nurses can break this cycle by performing risk assessments on patients. Find out if your patient is vulnerable to infections. We also need to ensure patients are well hydrated and have access to nutritious food. By delivering focused and safe interventions will ensure standard precautions are being adhered to (Nursing Times, 2016). These strategies will not only reduce the rate of transmission but will create more positive patient outcomes.
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