True/False Review and Chapter SummaryUse the knowledge you have gained about sta

True/False Review and Chapter SummaryUse the knowledge you have gained about statements and arguments to determine which of the following statements are true. Check all that apply.”George Washington is a green alien from Venus” is not a statement.”God exists” is not a statement if you do not know whether it is true or false.An argument must have some finite number of premises.”For the reason that” is a conclusion indicator.”Seeing that,” “inasmuch as,” and “owing to” are usually premise indicators.A single conclusion indicator can be used to indicate more than one conclusion in an argument.”Statement” is synonymous with “argument.”In the technical sense, an inference is the same as an argument.Every argument must contain at least three statements.In an argument, the conclusion must always be true.In many arguments without indicator words, the conclusion appears before the premises.A statement has a subject and a predicate.In the science of logic, the purpose is to develop methods and techniques to distinguish good arguments from bad arguments.An argument must contain one conclusion and at least one premise.If a statement’s truth value is unknown, then the statement is false. Sample ArgumentTicks are pesky, dangerous, and ubiquitous. Therefore, they should be exterminated, seeing as how they carry Lyme disease.Restructured Sample ArgumentP1:Ticks are pesky.P2:Ticks are dangerous.P3:Ticks are ubiquitous.P4:Ticks carry Lyme disease.C:Ticks should be exterminated.Restructure the arguments here, following the example. List the premises in the same order as they occur in the original passage. List the conclusion at the end. Use complete declarative sentences, and replace pronouns with a suitable noun phrase when appropriate.Argument ABook-based instruction is useful for learning concepts in the abstract, but it omits practical application. Practical experience is beneficial, but it can be uninformed. For these reasons, we know that book-based instruction and practical experience are both important.P1: P2: P3: P4: C: Argument BPlastic bags consume precious nonrenewable resources. Because of this, we should switch entirely to paper grocery bags. Trees can be replanted and paper is biodegradable, but plastic bags take up space in our landfills.P1: P2: P3: P4: C: Which of the following sentences are statements? Check all that apply.Silver is a better conductor than gold.Eat your peas and carrots.Duck!Barack Obama is the 44th president of the United States.No film stars are also country musicians.Voltage is electromotive force.Quantum mechanics can be used to give an account of free will.George Lucas directed Star Wars.Let’s not hold our breath.Let’s meet for coffee on Saturday.Let’s all prepare for an emergency landing.Uranus has planetary rings.Elton John was the fifth Beatle.Minnesota has a population of 5,167,101.The Summer Olympics occur once every four years.Reptiles are cold-blooded.What must be true about a statement as opposed to other types of sentences?A statement must be convincing.A statement must be true.A statement must be both true and false.A statement must be either true or false.A statement must be false.Argument AMathematics and music require the same type of thought processes. Musical relationships of time, tempo, and scale may be expressed mathematically, as Pythagoras demonstrated. As a result, people who excel at math should also be able to excel at music. A further reason for this is that mathematical training is skill-based and analogous to practicing musical scales on the piano.From this argument, type the conclusion indicator word or phrase here: Which statement best represents the conclusion of the argument?Musical relationships of time, tempo, and scale may be expressed mathematically.Mathematics and music require the same type of thought processes.Mathematical training is skill-based and analogous to practicing musical scales on the piano.People who excel at math should also be able to excel at music.Argument BBallpoint pens may be convenient, but fountain pens carry a number of advantages over ballpoint pens. Fountain pens require less pressure, which means that your hand does not get cramped up when writing. We may conclude that it is better to write with a fountain pen than a ballpoint pen. This is also because your handwriting will improve when you use a fountain pen.From this argument, type the conclusion indicator word or phrase here: Which statement best represents the conclusion of the argument?Fountain pens require less pressure, which means that your hand does not get cramped up when writing.Your handwriting will improve when you use a fountain pen.Ballpoint pens are convenient.It is better to write with a fountain pen than a ballpoint pen.Argument CSometimes light acts like a particle. At other times, light acts like a wave. Neither the properties of waves nor of particles are sufficient to explain all the properties of light. Therefore, light must represent a different kind of phenomenon, which physicists refer to as “wave-particle duality.”From this argument, type the conclusion indicator word or phrase here: Which statement best represents the conclusion of the argument?Light must represent a different kind of phenomenon, which physicists refer to as “wave-particle duality.”Sometimes light acts like a particle.Sometimes light acts like a wave.Neither the properties of waves nor of particles are sufficient to explain all the properties of light.1. Recognizing ArgumentsAn argument is a group of statements, some of which provide support or evidence for another. The supporting statements are premises, and the statement being supported is the conclusion. Although this characterization of an argument is useful, it is possible to give a more precise definition of an argument.Read the following paragraph and complete it by using the dropdown menus to fill in the blanks.Since an argument requires premises, an argument must claim that at least one statement presents true reasons or evidence. This property of an argument is known as the argument’s _____. And since an argument also requires a conclusion, an argument must claim that some statement follows from the true reasons or evidence presented in the premises. This property of an argument is known as the argument’s ______ . Any group of statements that meets these two criteria is an argument.Each passage that follows is not an argument. Determine which of the preceding criteria each passage fails to meet.Passage AA statement may have two possible truth values. If a statement accurately reflects the state of affairs, then the statement is true. If a statement does not accurately reflect the state of affairs, then the statement is false.Passage A is not an argument because it lacks ______Passage BIf the economy is slowing, then gold prices are increasing.Passage B is not an argument because it lacks ____Passage CBarns were traditionally painted red because farmers tinted their paint with iron oxide.Passage C is not an argument because it lacks _______2. Explicit and Implicit Inferential ClaimIt can often be difficult to determine if a passage is making an inferential claim because such a claim may be either explicit or implicit. An explicit inferential claim uses indicator words or phrases of some sort to inform the audience that a conclusion is being drawn from a set of reasons. By contrast, some arguments contain inferential relationships but do not contain any indicator words or phrases. In such cases the passage is said to be making an implicit inferential claim.Each passage that follows makes an inferential claim. Determine whether the inferential claim in each passage is an explicit inferential claim or an implicit inferential claim. Then indicate this with the dropdown menu provided.Passage ASince capacitance is directly proportional to the surface area of conductive plates, it follows that if you double the surface area of the conductive plates in any given capacitor, with other things being equal, then the capacitor will have twice the capacitance as well.Passage A makes an .Passage BIt can only be concluded that a paperless society will never come to pass. Although people used to think that electronic media and electronic communication would replace paper communication entirely, paper communication is as prevalent as it used to be despite the omnipresence of electronic substitutes. This conclusion is also evidenced by the failure of electronic books to replace traditional paper books as the primary mode by which people read longer literary works.Passage B makes an .Passage CBeach balls are not the safe toys that everyone believes them to be. If the plastic tears or breaks, then small children can suffocate if they place their heads within the plastic sphere. In addition, deflated beach balls represent a choking hazard for children and pets, who may accidentally ingest a torn piece of plastic. Finally, an inflated beach ball is a tripping hazard if it is left in an area of high foot traffic.Passage C makes an .3. Simple Noninferential PassagesSimple noninferential passages (including warnings, pieces of advice, statements of belief or opinion, loosely associated statements, reports, and so on) may express factual claims of various sorts, but they do not express any inferential claims. In other words, simple noninferential passages have no premises that claim to support a conclusion. Although these types of passages contain statements that could serve as the premises or conclusion of an argument, simple noninferential passages by themselves fail to meet the criteria for an argument because they do not contain inferences from one or more statements to another.The following passages are all instances of simple noninferential passages. Determine the type of noninferential passage that each instance represents, and indicate this using the dropdown menu beneath each passage.Passage ABeing poor is no excuse for sloth. Being rich is no excuse for corruption. Being virtuous is no excuse for self-importance.Passage A is .Passage BYou ought to do the following before switching careers: Think carefully about your future and your obligations, have an emergency fund to fall back on while you begin your new career, and research opportunities for advancement within your new career before leaving your current employment.Passage B is .Passage CHere are three fundamental truths. It is proper to give due respect to your elders. It is certain that death will come to your door. And it is true that your destiny is under your own control.Passage C is .Passage DWhatever you do, do not attempt to deceive your significant other.Passage D is .4. Expository Passages, Illustrations, and ExplanationsSome types of noninferential passages are more easily confused with arguments than the simple noninferential passages you have already seen. Expository passages, illustrations, and explanations are three types of nonarguments that do not contain any inferential claims but could easily be confused with arguments or interpreted as arguments, depending on whether the purpose of the passage is to provide reasons to accept some conclusion.In the following table, indicate whether each definition refers to an expository passage, an illustration, or an explanation.DefinitionsTypes of NonargumentsBegins with a topic sentence followed by one or more sentences to develop that sentence Involves one or more specific examples to show what something means or how it is done Sheds light on some event or phenomenon by showing why something is the case Next indicate whether each of the following passages is an expository passage, an illustration, or an explanation.Passage AAddition is the principle whereby separate quantities of items can be totaled together into a single quantity. If you have two quantities of items, you can count the items separately as two groups, or you can lump them together into one large group and count them together. In either case, you get the same total quantity.Passage A is an .Passage BA mammal is any animal that has sweat glands, including glands that produce milk. Thus, humans, whales, and giraffes are all mammals. So are dogs, horses, and mountain lions.Passage B is an .5. Arguments and ExplanationsAn explanation is a type of noninferential passage that purports to offer an account of why some accepted fact is the case. An argument, by contrast, provides reasons or evidence for a conclusion. Conclusions often are not generally accepted facts, which is why one needs to give reasons to accept the conclusion.An explanation has two parts, an explanans and an explanandum. The explanans is the statement or group of statements that does the explaining in an explanation. The explanandum is the accepted fact that is being explained. (The words “explanans” and “‘explanandum” are Latin words meaning “the thing explaining” and “the thing to be explained.”)You should note that there are cases in which the same passage can be interpreted as either an explanation or as an argument, depending on whether the goal of the passage is to explain an accepted fact or to prove a conclusion by providing reasons. The explanans of an explanation can easily be misinterpreted as a set of premises in an argument, and the explanandum can easily be misinterpreted as the conclusion of an argument. The key distinction is that an explanandum is presumed to be an already generally accepted fact, whereas the conclusion of an argument is not presumed to be an already generally accepted fact. Rather, in an argument, the premises are presumed to be the accepted facts from which the conclusion can then be inferred.Determine whether each passage is an argument or an explanation. Then answer the questions about the passages.Passage ABanana slugs are yellow because they have evolved to blend in with yellow bay leaves on the forest floor.Is Passage A an argument or an explanation?ArgumentExplanationThe claim that banana slugs are yellow serves as the in Passage A. And the claim that banana slugs have evolved to blend in with yellow bay leaves on the forest floor serves as the in Passage A.Passage BIf extrasolar planets exist, then there is a chance of finding extraterrestrial life. Extrasolar planets do exist. So, there must be a chance of finding extraterrestrial life.Is Passage B an argument or an explanation?ArgumentExplanationThe claim that there must be a chance of finding extraterrestrial life serves as the in Passage B. And the claim that the conditional statement, “if extrasolar planets exist, then there is a chance of finding extraterrestrial life,” is true, and that extrasolar planets exist serves as the in Passage B.6. Conditional StatementsConditional statements (“if… then…” statements) are easily confused with arguments. But individual conditional statements fail to meet the criteria for an argument. The following questions allow you to practice distinguishing conditional statements from arguments and to practice recognizing the parts of conditional statements.Complete the following sentences about conditional statements.The two parts of a conditional statement are known as the antecedent and the consequent. In an “if…then…” statement, the consequent follows the .To have an argument, you must have a factual claim and an inferential claim. This means that at least one statement in an argument must claim to present evidence, and there must be a claim that this evidence implies something. In a conditional statement, there assertion that either the antecedent or the consequent is true. Rather there is only the assertion that if the antecedent is true, then . Of course, a conditional statement as a whole present evidence because it asserts a relationship between statements. Yet when conditional statements are taken in this sense, a single conditional statement an argument because there separate claim that this evidence implies anything.In a conditional, the consequent also expresses a . This means that the truth of the is necessary for the truth of the .Consider the following conditional statement. Then complete the following questions by choosing the appropriate statements in the spaces provided.If Bob Marley was a famous reggae star, then Bob Marley was a Rastafarian.In this conditional sentence, which statement is the consequent? What are the necessary and sufficient conditions in the given conditional statement?Necessary Condition: Sufficient Condition9. True/False Review and Chapter SummaryUse your knowledge of arguments and the different types of nonarguments to determine which, if any, of the following sentences are true. Check all that apply.The relationship between the antecedent and the consequent in a conditional statement cannot be reworked into an argument.A false factual claim may still be the premise of an argument.A bad piece of advice is a bad argument.The content of a report can serve as premises from which to draw a conclusion.The antecedent of a conditional must be true for the conditional to be true.Sometimes an inferential relationship is evidenced by the statements within a passage themselves.Sometimes the source of a passage is helpful in determining whether to interpret the passage as an argument or some other type of passage.An expository passage is not an argument because it fails to make an inferential claim.A piece of advice can be the conclusion of an argument if it is supported by evidence.If the topic sentence of an expository passage is not generally accepted, you should never interpret the passage as an argument.
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